Different types of synovial joints
A joint is the junction where two or more bones meet known which is also known as an articulation. There are three main types of joint, which are classified according to the possible ranges of movement available, ranging from no movement to a high range of movement, these are: A fibrous joint which are immovable joints and have interlocking articulations, such as the flat bones of the Cranium (skull). Cartilaginous joints which are slightly movable and are connected by fibro cartilage such as those of the vertebral coulomb and ribs. Synovial joints cavity filled with synovial fluid and are freely movable in any direction which the joint allows, there are 6 different types of synovial joint in the human skeleton….
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A Pivot joint, which allows rotation around an axis such as the atlanto-axial joint of C1 & 2 in cervical spine allowing the rotation of the head and neck.
A Hinge joint, which allows for flexion & extension such as the elbow joint of the arm.
A Saddle joint, which allows movement back & forth & side to side like the saddle on a horse. A saddle joint enables the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb to adduct, abduct, flex & extend.
A Gliding or Plane joint which allows two bones to slide past each other such as the scapula-thoracic joint allowing the Scapula to slide over the costal bones of the rib cage allowing elevation & depression of the shoulder girdle.
A Ball & Socket joint which has the greatest degree of motion of the synovial joints as it allows for movement in any direction such as movements of the hip and shoulder, enabling circumduction, flexion, extension, abduction & adduction, internal & external rotation.
The final synovial joint is as an Ellipsoid or condyloid joint which is similar to the ball & socket joint but has slightly less range of movement possible. The metacarpo-phalangeal joints of the knuckles are a good example of an ellipsoid joint which allow for Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction & circumduction but no rotation.