The organs outside of the alimentary canal are known as accessory organs and are instrumental in supporting the process of digestion. These organs include the liver, which is the body’s largest internal organ, the gallbladder which is a small pouch under the liver and the pancreas which creates digestive juices.
An individual’s posture can deviate from an optimal spinal alignment for a number of reasons including too much desk working, unilateral loading and poor exercise programming due to imbalances which occur over time. The most common postural deviations include that of scoliosis, hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis.
The respiratory system is responsible for the intake of oxygen from the air which we breath into the body and the removal of carbon dioxide from the body into the air. Without oxygen we would not be able to survive as it keeps the body alive by fuelling aerobic energy production pathways essential for adenosine triphosphate resynthesis.
The nervous system is responsible for all internal communication within the body, with its primary role to maintain a constant balance of the internal environment known as homeostasis. It achieves this with the help of the brain and a complex network of electrical nerves and chemical messages that run throughout the body.
There are three energy systems which convert the ADP back into ATP including the ATP-PC also known as creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine system. The lactate or anaerobic glycolysis system also commonly known as the lactic acid system and the aerobic system also known as the oxygen or oxidative system.
The nervous system is the main control and communication centre of the body and is responsible for specific functions of communication to the different bodily systems. The functions include sensation, interpretation and response, these responses are either voluntary or involuntary processes dependant on the systems being used.
Blood pressure is a measure of the force that blood applies to the walls of the arteries as it flows through them, it is an important measure of an individual’s health measured in millimetres of mercury and expressed using two numerical readings representing systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
The heart is a muscular pump which pushes blood through the blood vessels around the body to the various tissues. The heart is the size of the individuals clenched fist & lies behind the sternum, just left of the centre. A health resting heart rate of an adult is between 60-80 beats per minute.
A joint is the junction where two or more bones meet and is known as an articulation. There are three main types of joints in the skeleton which including fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial. We will focus on the six different types of synovial joints in today’s article with specific examples of each.
Knowing the various bones and their specific locations within the body allows you to identify specific landmarks for the various muscle attachments. The skeleton can be split between the axial skeleton highlighted in blue, and the appendicular skeleton which is not highlighted.
The anatomical position is defined as the body in an upright position with legs parallel, arms by the sides with the palms facing forward. By knowing the various different anatomical positions will help in you in both the further understanding of the bodies anatomical position in relation to itself.
Skeletal muscles work in pairs, contracting and relaxing (reciprocal inhibition) to create movement, this is possible due to the protein myofilaments known as actin & myosin which move over each other, shortening the myofibril in a process known as the sliding filament theory.